African urbanization trends
African nations are seeing the highest rate of urbanization throughout the globe. Much of this is due to rural urban migration patterns as people seek jobs and better lives.
Sources:ACET March 2011, page 2
The out-migration of West African cities
A few years ago the world reached 50% urbanization for the first time in history. The drive towards urbanization was perhaps primarily sparked by the rural poor moving towards ‘green’ or more concrete pastures, as it were. The reverse in starting to happen in West Africa however. As urban centers are now too congested, unsafe, unsanitary, and without employment opportunities, people are returning to the rural communities.
Sources:CCD January 2011 pg. 2
The changing face of urbanization
“Urbanization is not a new phenomenon, but today it is taking a different form from in the past. From the 1940s to the 1970s, the move to the city was in search of jobs in the new industrial economies. From the start of decline in the 1980s and 1990s, the new migrants to cities were ore like economic refugees, fleeing the rural economic collapse triggered by structural adjustment and the strictures of prolonged drought in the Sahel. In the new century, economies have kickstarted again, and urbanization is taking a new pattern.
Sources:CDD June 2011 pg. 8
People Migrating From Farther to Live in Mumbai
Within Mahashtra—the western Indian state in which Mumbai is the capital—more than 74 percent of the migration is from rural to urban areas. Sixty percent of all migration within the state is into Mumbai from four nearby districts, Ratnagiri, Satara, Pune and Raigad. However, according to Strategic Foresight Group Asian Horizons, this trend is changing rapidly.
“The last census in 2001 revealed that the migration from districts farther away from the city, i.e. the other parts of Maharashtra, such as Latur, Nanded, Solapur, Parbhani, Jalna, Osmanabad and Beed is on the increase.”
Sources:Strategic Foresight Group Asian Horizons March 2010, page 3
Micro-credit financing for water infrastructure, but excludes slum-dwellers
Jakarta will continue to face water supply and sanitation challenges, but some new financing schemes have emerged. However, they are marginally successful at supporting slum dwellers and could widen a healthy-sick, rich-poor inequality gap.
The Strategic Foresight Group writes,
Sources:The Strategic Foresight Group, July 2010, page 6: http://newsletters.clearsignals.org/SFG_July2010.pdf#page=6
“Grey water baths and itchy skin: life without sanitation in Jakarta's slums”. 17 April 2010.
“Raw water reaching new pollution-level highs”. The Jakarta Post. 27 May 2010.
Haryadi, Tomy. “Bringing back good karma in water quality”. The Jakarta Post. 23 March 2010.
Lutfia, Ismira. “Plan to Pipe Clean Water to Jakarta's Poor”. The Jakarta Globe. 1 September
“Rp 2.1t water treatment network planned for Jakarta”. The Jakarta Post. 22 May 2010.
“Jakarta population over 9.5 million: Agency”. The Jakarta Post. 2 June 2010.
“Special Issue: Water Worries”. The Jakarta Globe. 25-26 July 2009.
Kurniasih, Heni. “Water Not For All: The Consequences of Water Privatisation in Jakarta,
Indonesia”. The University of Melbourne. 1-3 July 2008.
“Water worries”. Megacity Jakarta. 30 July 009. <http://www.atimes.com/seasia/
Kurniawati, Dewi. “Jakarta Faces Swelling Population and Shortfall of Proper Housing”. The
Jakarta Globe. 3 November 2009. <http://thejakartaglobe.com/home/jakarta-faces-swellingpopulation-and-shortfall-of-proper-housing/339472>
Rainwater Harvesting as strategy to reconcile water-demand supply gap
Rainwater harvesting could play a significant role in water conservation in Pune, a rapidly growing city in India.
Intellecap writes that a record heat wave and growing water crisis in India are forcing politicians to measures to conserve water. Some organizations, like the Pune‐based Green Energy Foundation, are calling for increased harvesting of rainwater to serve Pune’s water needs. The organization has criticized the city for poor water management.
Sources:Intellecap July. 2010 pg 6:
Mega-Cities Become Mega-Regions
A trend towards “mega-regions” helped the world pass a tipping point—more half the world’s people now live in cities.
The world’s mega-cities are merging to form vast ‘mega-regions’ which may stretch hundreds of kilometers across counties and be home to more than 100 million people. The biggest mega-regions, which are at the forefront of the rapid urbanization sweeping the world, are:
Hong Kong-Shenhzen-Guangzhou, China—120 million people
Sources:The Millenium Project, South African Node, March 2010, page 10:
State of the World’s Cities 2008/2009:
The Guardian, March 22, 2010:
India and Japan to Build 24 Green Cities
Free trade is about more than removing protectionist trade measures, but about making true international collaboration possible through the free movement of capital, goods, and to some extent labor; and the knowledge that comes along with the above transfers.
Sources:Intellecap Dec. 2010, pg. 19:
India's Path to Better Urban Infrastructure
Developing cities around the world face major issues with traffic and difficulties with commuting. The toll that this takes productivity are just recently being calculated. When traveling just a few kilometers can take up to an hour, not only does work productivity decline, but people living in rapidly gowing urban areas face problems of access to hospitals, schools and other necesities. The rates of traffic accidents are also increasing as drivers become impatient and take creative and dangerous routes.
Sources:Intellecap Dec. 2010 pg2. 4-5:
Vicious cycle of wetlands disappearance and urbanization.
The loss of wetlands in Dhaka, which exacerbates and is exacerbated by urbanization, will decrease security of the poor who depend on its services.
The Strategic Foresight Group writes,
“At the current rate and pattern of urbanisation, Dhaka’s wetlands could disappear completely in the next 10 to 15 years, which will make millions of people living in the city impoverished. In the last 15 years, Dhaka has lost approximately 40% of its temporary wetlands.
Sources:Strategic Foresight Group, Dec 2010, page 6:
‘40pc wetlands go in 20 years’. The Daily Star. 29 June 2010: http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=144589>
‘Save Ashulia: a threatened wetland near capital’. The Financial Express-bd. 01 May 2009: http://www.thefinancialexpress-bd.com/more.php?news_id=65299
Somewhereinblog. 30 July 2009: http://m.somewhereinblog.net/blog/zrlitu/28986136
BanglaNews365. 25 February 2010: http://banglanews365.com/2010/02/%E0%A6%9C%E0%A6%B2%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%B6%E0%A7%9F-%E0%A6%AA%E0%A7%81%E0%A6%A8%E0%A6%B0%E0%A7%81%E0%A6%A6%E0%A
‘Wet land and water bodies’. 23 August 2010: http://www.chintaa.com/index.php/chinta/showAerticle/121/bangla