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African urbanization trends

African nations are seeing the highest rate of urbanization throughout the globe. Much of this is due to rural urban migration patterns as people seek jobs and better lives.

Average: 2.2 (13 votes)

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The out-migration of West African cities

A few years ago the world reached 50% urbanization for the first time in history. The drive towards urbanization was perhaps primarily sparked by the rural poor moving towards ‘green’ or more concrete pastures, as it were. The reverse in starting to happen in West Africa however. As urban centers are now too congested, unsafe, unsanitary, and without employment opportunities, people are returning to the rural communities.

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West African election very different from the western ideal

West Africa, due to unrest and other issues, has a very high rate of migration between countries. Add to that the issue of borders having been created across ethnic and tribal lines and you have an interesting set up for western style democracy.

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Centre for Development and Democracy, April 2011, Pg. 5 – 6 and pg. 10

USAID's article on the Guinea election:

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Salinity-tolerant agriculture could improve livelihood of rural farmers in Bangladesh

A new salinity-tolerant paddy species could increase productivity of coastal small scale-farmers, boost income, and potentially buffer against urban migration.

The Strategic Foresight Group writes,

Average: 2.7 (3 votes)


The Strategic Foresight Group, Nov 2010, page 6: http://newsletters.clearsignals.org/SFG_July2010.pdf#page=6

‘Salinity-affected land brought under scheme’. NewAgebd. 06 February 2010.

‘The saline revolution?’ bdnews24. 28 April 2010.

‘Mechanisms of salt tolerance in crop plants and salinity management’. Rivers and Communities.
Blog 27 August, 2009.


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People Migrating From Farther to Live in Mumbai

Within Mahashtra—the western Indian state in which Mumbai is the capital—more than 74 percent of the migration is from rural to urban areas. Sixty percent of all migration within the state is into Mumbai from four nearby districts, Ratnagiri, Satara, Pune and Raigad. However, according to Strategic Foresight Group Asian Horizons, this trend is changing rapidly.
“The last census in 2001 revealed that the migration from districts farther away from the city, i.e. the other parts of Maharashtra, such as Latur, Nanded, Solapur, Parbhani, Jalna, Osmanabad and Beed is on the increase.”

Average: 2 (1 vote)


Strategic Foresight Group Asian Horizons March 2010, page 3

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Exportable labor: an unemployment solution

"In June 2010 Kenya's Sports and Youth Affairs minister announced that Kenya would send at least 10,000 youths to work abroad under the government's plan to check youth unemployment. She told parliament that 390 young people had been employed in war-torn Iraq and Afghanistan under the programme established in 2008.

Average: 2 (1 vote)

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Backlash against Latino dispersal in US

The Latino community in the US is dispersing away from historically immigrant gateway cities, which has already provoked antagonistic responses from the state or the public and threatens to exacerbate existing tensions.

RAND writes,

"During the early years of the 2000s 80 percent of the nation's Latinos lived in these large metropolitan areas (LA, New York, Miami), but this is changing as Latinos move to where the jobs are – to smaller cities, suburbs or even rural areas.

Average: 2.5 (4 votes)


RAND, Nov 2010, page 11-12:http://newsletters.clearsignals.org/RAND_Nov2010.pdf#page=11

“Hispanics in the United States”, US Census Bureau. Accessed 11/5/10 at:

Hulse, Carl, “Senate Votes to Set English as National Language”, The New York Times, 19 May 2006.
Accessed 11/4/10 at:
http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/19/washington/19immig.html ; “Marchers Protest Border Patrol Group”

Associated Press, 24 July 2005, accessed 11/4/10 at: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/24/national/24march.html?_r=1&scp=3&sq=minuteman+Civil+Defense+Corps&st=nyt

Archibold, Randal C., “Emotions Flare after Immigration Law is Blocked”, The New York Times, 29 July 2010. Accessed 11/4/10 at: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/30/us/30arizona.html?ref=arizona-immigration-law-sb-1070

“The Law of Large Numbers”, The Economist, 9 September 2010. Accessed 11/3/10 at: http://www.economist.com/node/16992245?story_id=16992245&CFID=151091249&CFTOKEN=15331833

Mui, Ylan Q., “Five Years After Katrina, New Orleans Sees Higher Percentage of Hispanics”, The Washington Post, 21 August 2010. Accessed 11/3/10 at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/08/20/AR2010082005636.html

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Localized Conflict a Thing of the Past

Despite the amount of cross border wars having declined sharply since the end of the Cold War, the concept of a purely localized conflict is long gone. Large diasporas that have grown out of fragile states catapults a country's specific conflict into a much more global and complex issue.

"The vast movement of Diasporas and connections between local populations and other globalized citizens’ means that grievances are no longer confined in time and place.

The Somali Diaspora is estimated at being between one and two million

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Society for International Development August 2010, pg. 11

Khadra Elmi, Distant Voices and the Ties that Bind: Identity, Politics and Somali Diaspora Youth:

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Human trafficking in West Africa

Human trafficking in West Africa might have a dismal future, which can exacerbate other human rights challenges and increasing the need for serious attention.

Paul Ahiave of CDD writes,

Average: 2 (4 votes)

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Rural displacement impacts literacy rates

As rural indigenous populations are being displaced by large-scale mono-culture agriculture in Bangladesh, the country can expect a drop in their literacy rates:

Average: 2.8 (4 votes)


Strategic Foresight Group, Asian Horizons, Issue No: 8, October 2010. Page 6.

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